Abstract writing in research paper

An abstract is the first anchor to a research paper and should be written well. This step guide will help authors prepare an effective abstract.
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Getting a review invitation with a poor abstract creates no appetite to review a paper. If the reviewer decides to review anyway he or she might be biased from the start and look merely for confirmation that the rest of the paper follows the quality of the abstract.

The abstract is often the first thing readers start with and it comes on the first page. But please, do not write it as the first section of your paper. Write the abstract only once the other paper sections are completed. You can only summarise what you have already written. If you write the abstract at the beginning, you risk writing statements that are not included in the paper. As a consequence, you will have to rewrite your abstract later. If the paper sections are well-written and you follow the steps outlined below, it should not take you longer than minutes to write a very informative abstract.

Most abstracts are between and words. Seldom will you find abstracts of more than words in papers. For conferences, abstracts can sometimes be longer, and labelled as extended abstracts up to 1, words. Most journals have a standard maximum length that they consider appropriate for abstracts. You can find it in the journal guidelines for authors. You can also look at the length of other abstracts within the same journal.

Do not substantially exceed the maximum length. If you have already written your paper, writing a good abstract that satisfies the demands specified above is NOT difficult.

You need only to summarise what you have already said somewhere else in the paper. As with any book summary, a paper abstract should summarise all text sections. Regardless what your main paper sections are, they all should be recognisable in your abstract. Write the main section headings of your paper on a sheet of paper e. They are the backbone elements of your abstract and ensure that you summarise all paper sections. Look at your Introduction section again. Imagine you need to explain to somebody in one to two sentences what you have written in your Introduction.

You cannot go into much detail. Write one sentence about the overall problem, the background of your research, and tell the reader why it is important. In your second sentence, state the paper objective the research question that your paper addresses. The reader needs to understand what the research aim of your paper is. Now, screen the Methods section of your paper. What are the key method steps that you have undertaken to achieve the objective stated above? Summarise these steps again in one to two sentences, no more. You do not need to tell your readers the specific details of your methods.

It is most important for the reader to understand which methods you used. Numbers, percentages, sample sizes and other specifications can typically be left out unless they represent a very unique feature of your paper and therefore should be stated. Next, review your Results section.

What is the main finding of your study? Describe it in one to two sentences. Make sure that you respond to the research questions that you stated above. The reader wants to know what the outcome of your study is.


Again, use numbers and details only very sparsely. If your result can be expressed in one key figure, state it, otherwise describe in words. Do not present many small details and results that may confuse the reader. Briefly browse through your Discussion section. What are the main results and aspects you are discussing?

Types of abstracts

Draft one sentence where you mention the three most important ones. If there is one striking aspect that results from your findings then mention it as well. In the abstract, the discussion of single aspects can be stated within the same sentence as the result?. Read your Conclusion section again. What is the main take-home message that you want to tell your readers? Place this message at the end of the abstract. You can even copy it from the conclusion section, you do not have to reinvent the wheel by creating totally new sentences. In the abstract, discussion and conclusion can be merged but make sure readers find a concluding statement in your abstract.

Otherwise, they would assume there is nothing to conclude from your paper. Now that you have a draft version of your abstract, you may want to edit it to improve clarity for your readers. One aspect to review is the tense form you chose. We recommend you write the abstract in the past tense, as it is a summary of a paper that reports on an activity that took place in the past. You are mainly referring to your own work here and therefore, past tense is appropriate.


1: How to write a paper abstract?

A second aspect to look at is style. Avoid sentences that are too long and complicated. Try to use simple and easily understandable phrases and reduce the use of too many relative clauses. Avoid an extensive use of passive voice. A third aspect to look at is length.

Then, why not apply the same techniques and methods of the belief that are used when writing the advertising text for their compilation. Let's try? Try to clearly identify the audience. Who will be interested in your piece of writing? Who, after reading it will get the maximum benefit? It will be of interest to owners of websites, blogs, leading email newsletters, users of social networks from the annotations to the book "Content, marketing, and rock and roll". It will be of interest to all active Internet users and owners of web-resources who want to freely navigate in the world of creating selling content.

Concreteness always overcomes generalized information and makes any message clear and believable.

Tips for Creating an Abstract In APA Style

Let the reader be eager to read the text. Compare: In this article, the brilliant David Ogilvy reveals 7 secrets to writing effective headlines. In this article, the famous American entrepreneur and copywriter talks about creating effective headlines. Stop copying and imitating. Do you consider yourself a lucky person?

How to make your Abstract more Effective, Abstract offers a Preview

Be unique, and the reader will appreciate it. For example, The book contains a collection of special techniques. Add "personality": The paper contains a unique collection of top-secret tricks and techniques that you have never heard of. Pay attention to the associations that cause some words symposium, use, analyze, etc. This may be negative, time-consuming, complexity. Before you write a word, think about whether it is possible to say simpler, shorter and more specific.

Try not just to specify the characteristics or to describe the article, but to name the specific benefits of reading.

A common mistake regarding research paper abstracts is writing them the same way you would write the rest of a project. Besides some elements that your abstract has to contain, you should avoid some things. How to write a research paper abstract step-by-step? Do not go into the details.

Provide a shortened version of the conclusion make it sentences maximum when writing the abstract for a research paper. Writing the abstract for the research paper is the smallest portion of your assignment.